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Something about nutrition and dog feeding I.

Nutrients and Energy

We allow the right dog food to exercise all its genetic potential. What we offer in a bowl will affect its growth, development, health, appearance, performance, ability to reproduce, longevity, but not last, its satisfaction and quality of life. Good nutrition – this means ensuring a doggy diet with an adequate nutrient and energy content, minerals and vitamins.

Protein

Proteins are one of the basic building blocks of tissues. Crucial are not only for building muscle and internal organs, but we find them in every cell of the body, such as connective tissues, bones and cartilages, in the skin and fur. Many are part of the substances managing processes in the body – enzymes and hormones. They are an essential component of the colouring agents that allow breathing.

Proteins are nitrogenous substances composed of amino acid chainsthat characterize them. Some of the 20 amino acids your dog can synthesize in the body itself, others must take in the feed. These are called irreplaceable, or essential and include here arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, Polonahraditeľné are cystine and tyrosine. The presence or absence of these amino acids in protein foods determines their biological value, i.e. how their dog can use it for building their own body tissues.

And we are not protein like protein and the actual amount of protein in food does not indicate its quality. The source of protein is also important. If a dog receives a lot of less valuable protein, it converts it into carbohydrates and uses it as a source of energy, whether it deposits in the form of fat, with excess nitrogen excreted in the urine. If some amino acids are missing, they cannot shape their own body proteins. The use of all food proteins is determined by the least-represented amino acid – the so-called Limit.

The importance of correct representation of indispensable amino acids in dog food also shows studies concerning cases of critical deficiency, e.g. the lack of arginine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine in the milk replacer may be the cause of vision damage in the puppies, which was found for example. For puppies Samojedov. The lack of other amino acids is likely to be involved in the emergence of some heart disease and other diagnoses.

for the skin and hair are of particular importance cystine and methionine, amino acids containing sulfur.

It is a big difference whether the source of protein in food e.g. The growing puppies are muscle, or cuttings from slaughterhouses such as udders, larynx, etc., which contain e.g. Up to twice the lower amount Lysine, amino acids very important for growth. The result is the puppies with little developed muscle mass and large tummies, as I had the opportunity to see in practice.

Similar The big difference is for example. Between meat and MBM meal Used as a source of protein in dry feed for dogs, it is therefore necessary to read on the labelling of the feed not only data on the crude protein content, but also on their origin. In general, cheap feedingstuffs have a nitrogen content of the same, often even higher than higher quality feedingstuffs, if the lower price achieved by the investigation on the sources of protein that are the costliest component of the feed, the dog benefits from them much less nutrients.

Examples of digestibility of nitrogenous substances from feedingstuffs:

Egg 100%
Liver, kidney 92%
Curd, milk 90%
Meat (muscle) 90%
Offal 87%
Fish 87%
Fish and Meat meal 81 – 85%
Slaughterhouse Poultry Waste 60%
-Bone meal 60%
Cereal scrap, vegetables, fruit 60 – 70%

Fats

Fats are the energy richest nutrient, supplying the body with almost twice the amount of energy compared to proteins and carbohydrates. However, fats are not only important as a source of energy, they occupy a number of functions in the body. They form a protective layer on the skin, envelop and protect the internal organs, are part of the cell packaging, protect the nerve cells, dissolve vitamins A, D, E, K, as part of the bile assist in digestion, as part of Prostaglandins attenuate inflammations, have the meaning For the transport of nutrients, they create a subcutaneous layer, which is not only the energy supply, but also protects against cold, injury, is necessary for the operation of some hormones. Fats supply food for dogs with good aroma and taste, but often abused in less-quality feedingstuffs.

Chemically they are esters of glycerol with fatty acids. Certain fatty acids do not create a dog alone and are dependent on their dietary intake. Indispensable fatty acids are some omega 6 – Unsaturated and Omega 3 – unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, linoleic and arachidonic. Some are present mainly in plant (Omega-6), some in animal fats (Omega-3) and in feed would should be in the vvyváženom ratio (Omega – 6: Omega – 3 in the ratio of 10 – 5:1). The lack of these acids leads initially to worsening the quality of the skin and fur, claws, later to itching, zhrubnutiu, inflammation of the skin, ears and oral cavity, worsening of resistance, sterility, eye diseases, worsening of blood clotting, wound healing, weakness, Changes in weight.

The fat content of dry complete feedingstuffs for healthy adult dogs usually varies between 10 – 15%. In feedingstuffs intended for older dogs, with a slower metabolism, usually not more than 10% and in feedingstuffs which serve to reduce weight, it is 6 – 9%. Similarly, dogs sick of the liver, the pancreas need less fat in the feed, but the quality. dogs with skin diseases have a higher demand for the representation of Omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids, effectively helping for example. Primrose and Borákový oil, as well as fatty acids EPA – Eikosapentaneová acid and DHA – Docosahexaenoic acid contained in fat fish. They have a good influence on the nervous, circulatory system and eyes.

Active and Pretekárski dogs need fat much more and this can be added in special ready-made food supplements, or in the form of quality živočíčnych and vegetable fats (pork, poultry, fish oil, ghee, vegetable oils – rapeseed, Sunflower, soya, hemp, flax, pumpkin, olive, maize, etc.). When Skrmovaní a larger amount of fat It increases the need for antioxidants, e.g. Vitamin E, zinc, selenium.

feedingstuffs containing fat must be stored in closed containers, refrigerated and dark, otherwise they are rapidly spoiled and the content of the toxic substances is increased. This process in finished feedingstuffs slows down added antioxidants.

By heat treatment, the digestibility of nitrogenous substances is reduced by 5 – 7%.

In quality finished feedingstuffs, the main source of protein resides meat and dried meat or meat meal. In less kvaliných, part of the protein is replaced by MBM meal, soy, maize and potato proteins.

The daily need for protein depends primarily on the weight, age, physiological condition and activity of the dog. A healthy adult dog with normal physical activity needs at least 22 – 30% of crude protein in a dry ration (in wet food – canned, it is about 5 – 8%), growing Šťeňa 28 – 35%, similarly active adult dog 28 – 35%, pregnant and breastfeeding woman 28 – 35%, PES in the period p Retekov and in intensive training 30 – 40%. The old dog has a need for nitrogenous substances similar to that of an adult dog, about 20 – 30%, because the proteins of body tissues are continually restored and must be replenished.

The higher need for nitrogenous substances have dogs for example. During recovery after diseases and injuries, but also in the replacement of the hair, because proteins are its main ingredient and in dogs with rich hair, the consumption of protein for hair formation can represent up to 30% of daily intake.

Greater protein or amino acid deficiency is reflected in growth, weakness and fatigue, reduced resistance, slowing wound healing, worse clotting blood, poor hair quality, skin and eye diseases.

excess protein in healthy dogs does not pose a problem. However, in dogs with severe renal or hepatic impairment, it can greatly worsen their medical condition. For such sick or very old dogs, protein from very high-quality sources is complemented with high digestibility, which will cover their needs without undue burden of the organism.

Recent trends in feeding tend to return to the natural feeding of carnivores and the protein content in modern feedingstuffs is much higher at the expense of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates

Simple and compound sugars are energy-rich substances mainly found in plants and milk. Recently, their role in dog feeding a lot is discussed.

Sugars are used by dogs primarily as a source of energy, especially for the nervous system, heart, red blood cells. Carbohydrates are part of cell walls, nucleic acids, some proteins and fats, providing carbon structures for the production of amino acids and fatty acids. They deliver immediate energy in intensive short performances. They are stored in a liver in the form of glycogen, which is released as necessary during the load.

Despite these important functions, dogs are not necessary in large quantities, dogs can be created from amino acids and glycerol. The presence of small amounts of carbohydrates helps metabolism and allows for better use of protein from food (enough to 15%).

The fact that the finished feed often contains more than half the amount of energy currently in carbohydrates is shown to be a defective step of the producers who have thus tried to cheaper them. As carbohydrate feed are often used cereals, corn, rice, potatoes. Some of them belong to the most common allergens in food and cause large fluctuations in blood sugar levels, which increases the risk of diabetes, obesity and other diseases. Therefore, in modern finished feedingstuffs, the carbohydrate content is significantly reduced and is delivered primarily in the form of fruit and vegetables.

The indispensable role in dog nutrition has carbohydrates with a specific structure – soluble and insoluble fibre, which are part of plant bodies.

Soluble fibre is used in the gut of the dog symbiotickými bacteria and supports their growth, creating a healthy environment in the digestive tract and preventing the proliferation of germs.

Insoluble fibre adjusts the movement of food in the intestines, causing a sense of saturation and has a cleansing function – it helps to remove dead cells and various bowel residues. Fibre is an important part of the feed, but its quantity should not exceed 2%.

Energy

by burning nutrients in metabolic processes up to carbon dioxide and water the dog acquires energy for other metabolic processes, activity of the heart, brain, muscle, maintain body temperature and for any movement. It cannot use all of the food energy, digestible energy can be calculated after deduction of losses in faeces.

How much digestible energy needs our dog to Záchov – Keeping the metabolism at rest can be calculated according to the equation:

Záchovná need energy in kcal/day = 30 x (weight in kg) + 70

So for example. 20 kg heavy dog needs for its basic functioning about 670 kcal a day. However, such an amount of energy will not allow it to take any extra activity, even to balance the body temperature, if necessary. On any movement would have to draw energy from their own fat reserves. If he had not received enough energy for the long term, he would begin to break down body proteins. Therefore, when compiling a feed lot, we must take into account its real need for energy, e.g. Also for movement, growth, regeneration, lactation, or warm up in cold weather. Therefore, the záchovnú Need for energy (ZPE) must be multiplied by a coefficient by category.

category

Daily Need for energy

Dog Overweight 1.0 x ZPE
castrated dog with normal activity 1.6 x ZPE
adult dog with normal activity 1.8 x ZPE
Dog performing easy work 2.0 x ZPE
Dog performing moderate work 3.0 x ZPE
Dog performing hard work 4.0 – 8.0 x ZPE
Pregnant by 42. Day of pregnancy 1.8 x ZPE
Pregnant female female from 42. Day of pregnancy 3.0 x ZPE
Laktujúcay The number of puppies 4.0 – 8.0 x ZPE
puppy from birth to 4 months of age 3.0 x ZPE
puppy from 4 months of age to adulthood 2.0 x ZPE
Old Dog 1.6 x ZPE

So an adult 20 kg weighing doggy with normal activity will need 1206 kcal.

The amount of energy is often reported in the Joules, which corresponds to the system, but the calorie count is preserved due to praktičnosti. For the conversion of 1 kcal corresponds to 4.18 kj.

Water

The dog body contains 70% water. This creates an environment for the functioning of the entire metabolism and all organs, allowing the use and transport of nutrients and gases, the excretion of waste substances, the maintenance of body temperature.

Water is an essential ingredient in nutrition. The dog can lose all body fat and half of the protein and survive, but not lose more than 10% of the water. The daily need for water in the dog fluctuates between 35 and 50 ml/kg of weight. It increases with dry feeding, at a high temperature environment, during exertion. Young animals need more water than older.

The dog should have drinking water still available. Tap water is good, for example Also still the mineral that complements both the dog and the minerals. Extreme effort, such as Childbirth, long training, race, or diarrhea, we can replace the PSU in water with some energy and lost electrolytes – by adding glucose or other easily digestible sugars and electrolyte solutions. This is especially necessary if the dog appears to have signsof dehydration, which can be verified by a skin test. If we create algae from the loose dog leather between the blades, this will return to the normal position within 2 – 3 seconds. When you lose water the skin loses elasticity and it takes it longer. This is already a life threatening condition and in this case we supply the dog Elektrolytovými solutions every 20 – 30 minutes until it returns to normal. If it is not able to take enough fluids, the infusion is necessary.

In warm weather dogs are particularly sensitive to water shortages. Compared to the person who sweats, their possibilities for cooling are limited, so it is much easier to prehrejú.

However, there is plenty of fresh water in the winter, if they are outside and the water freezes, it should be replaced more frequently and administered with lukewarm.

occasionally the problem is to give working dogs enough fluidsto avoid dehydration. Sometimes it is because they do not taste water from another source. Therefore, if necessary pour into it, for example. A small amount of fruit juice or iced tea. Some experienced dog trainers serve the dog in the morning before the exercise of the meat broth, who mostly accept them willing. Also, some electrolyte solutions are so flavored.

Water can also pose a health risk

In particular, standing water from ponds and/or, but also from contaminated wells, may contain a number of pathogenic bacteria, e.g. Leptospira, or Escherichia coli, but also other harmful substances.