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Something about nutrition and feeding-II.

Vitamins and Minerals

The body needs minerals and vitamins in small quantities, but they are an essential part of nutrition. Each of these substances, or elements, has an unsubstitutable function in the body. Their lack, but sometimes the excess, can cause serious problems in the body. As these substances often interact, it is important not only the quantity but also the relative ratio.

It is therefore safer to add them, if necessary, in preparations with a balanced composition. In quality complete feedingstuffs, the ratio of vitamins and minerals to the individual categories of dogs to which the feed is intended is a proportion. Even dogs feed a varied raw diet, they usually have enough.

Deficiency occurs in dogs feding the residues of human food, a unilateral or boiled diet, as the heat treatment of many bilologicky active substances is destroyed, or in specific cases where the need for certain substances is increased – e.g. For greater stress, stress, replacement of hair, after injuries, any diseases, especially chronic.

Even long-term and improper feed storage changes their composition and the amount of vitamins in them decreases. The short-term deficit of the dog can compensate for a greater shortage of changes in výzore, performance and fertility, and later the disease arises.

Fat-soluble Vitamins

These vitamins are stored in the liver, so the deficiency is not common and some can be overdosed.

Vitamin A (retinol)

Vitamin A, a significant antioxidant, is important to ensure normal vision, growth, bone development, skin and mucous health, reproduction, protects against the onset of tumors.

The dog receives it in food as vitamin A, or its precursor beta-carotene, which is found primarily in plants. Its richsource is fish oil, in larger quantities is found in the liver, egg yolk, milk, butter, carrot, corn, green plants, paprika. Its deficiency is rare because it is stored in the liver. Therefore, it should be supplemented with caution especially in young dogs where theexcess may cause bone deformation.

Its apparent deficiency is manifested by infertility in females and males, šeroslepotou, increased susceptibility to infections, slow wound healing, inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, e.g. Bronchitis, ocular conjunctivitis, oral cavity, digestive tract, degeneration of nerve fibres, resulting in limping, up paralysis of the limbs.

Vitamin A will withstand heating up to 100 °c, but not longer cooking. The light is decomposition.

Vitamin D (Kalciferol)

Vitamin D is essential for the management of the body with calcium and phosphorus, it is important for bone health, teeth, reproduction. Sunlight is required for its metabolism .

the higher need for vitamin D have young animals and pregnant dogs. In its lack or lack of sunlight, rickets arise – deformation of bones and skulls, older animals suffer from mäknutím and starvation include brittle bones.

The source of vitamin for dogs is mainly milk and fish oil, liver. It is stored in the liver and its overdose is as dangerous as the deficiency. In overdose, odvápňujú bones and calcium are stored in soft organs and skin. The addition of vitamin D in a manifest lack of calcium or an incorrect ratio to phosphorus may worsen the animal’s condition. It is therefore used with caution and almost exclusively in complete vitamin-mineral supplements.

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Vitamin E prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids andprotects the cells from damageto the LIPOPEROXIDMI. It promotes thestrength of blood vessels and the elasticity of tissues – skin, muscles, protects the liver, contributes to the synthesis of multiple hormones, is important for reproduction, muscle function, skin health. Funčne is linked to selenium.

Its lack is manifested by disturbances of reproduction, weakness and fatigue, muscle damage, and is attributed to a specific damage to the intestinal walls in chronic inflammation of the colon.

The need for vitamin E is higher in breeding animals, in animals in recovery, weak pups, but also with increased skrmovaní of fat, e.g. For work and sports dogs. In particular, fats with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids must be protected from oxidative damage, therefore vitamin E is added to finished feedingstuffs as a natural antioxidant.

The source of vitamin E in dog food are vegetable oils and pork ointment, green plants, cereal germs, liver, eggs, nuts.

Vitamin K (Fylochinon, Menachinon)

Vitamin K1 (Fylochinon) is a dog accepted in food, vitamin K2 (Menachinon) is synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Vitamin K is an important factor in blood clotting, but it also has the importance of vascular health, the imposition of calcium in the bones, the immune system, the control functions of other vitamins. Its need to rise after severe infections, injuries, after treatment with antibiotics. In particular, it must be administered at high doses in commonly occurring poisoning coumarin-anticoagulation derivatives in jedoch against rodents.

The source of this vitamin is primarily green plants, liver, fish meal, seaweed, egg yolk.

Water soluble Vitamins

These vitamins, if taken in excess, are excreted in the urine and feces. Therefore, we are more likely to meet their shortcomings.

Vitamin B1 (thiamin)

Vitamin B1 interferes with the metabolism of sugars, nucleic acids, fats and certain hormones. It allows the extraction of energy from carbohydrates, is an active component of the nervous system. Supports appetite and digestion. It acts in support of the treatment of nerve diseases.

Its need, among other things, also depends on the fat and protein content of the feed dose, higher when fed mainly with cooked fodder, dry fodder, or fresh fish. Many fish species contain the enzymeTiaminázu, which decompositions this vitamin. Tiamináza loses efficiency after cooking fish. No I vitamím B1 is sensitive to high temperatures and boiling is destroying. The longer-term deficiency of vitamin B1 is manifested by lagging in growth, loss of appetite, weakness, cardiac and vision disorders, later kŕčami, paralysis inferior, until death.

Its natural source is brewer’s yeast, raw meat and offal, eggs, milk, cereal sprouts.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 as part of the enzymes enters the metabolism of proteins, fats and sugars. Its need increases with a higher protein and fat content in the feed dose. Higher entitlements have young animals, breeding dogs, working and sports psi, stress, infectious diseases, recovery, dogs with liver disease, after application of antibiotics.

The deficiency is seen as lagging behind in growth, poor appetite, damage to the cornea, lossing the hair. Infertility Sučiek, high embryonálnou mortality, native few viable and dead puppies.

The natural source of vitamin are liver and kidney, yeast, red meat, milk, eggs, green plants.

Vitamin B3 (Nkotínová acid)

This vitamin has a great role in releasing energy from the feed. It has the importance of the synthesis of some hormones, is important for the functioning of the nervous system, digestion, reproduction, skin.

Mild deficiency will be seen in poorness and restlessness, more severe diarrhea, neurological disorders, skin inflammation.

It is present in fish and poultry meat, eggs, milk, yeasts. Its need rises if there is a lack of tryptophan in the diet and when fed with plenty of corn and cereal. In cereals, it is in custody that the dog cannot use.

Vitamin B5 (Pantotenová acid)

as part of the ACETYLKOENZÝMU and interferes with the metabolism of all nutrients, it is important for the activity of the adrenal glands, the immune system, for proper skin function, wound healing.

The deficiency is rare because it is commonly present in food – meat, factors, yeast, peanuts, green plants, cereal germs and otrubách, although it is very sensitive to heat and is decomposition at 60 º C.

It is advisable to add it to dogs with skin and mucous membranes, inflammations, injuries, antibiotics.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 is essential for the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, other vitamins, for the production of red blood cells, antibodies, as well as for the excretion of waste substances.

Its deficiency is most commonly found in chronically ill animals, or after the application of antibiotics and similar medicinal products, but also after long-term feeding only boiled and less valuable diets, high protein content in the feed, or at high Ambient temperatures. .

In severe deficiency, dry skin, hair loss, anaemia, oral inflammation, loss of coordination of movements, convulsions, diarrhoea, restlessness, fatigue

Vitamin B6 is found in the liver, yeast, muscle, fresh fish, cereal germs, grain husks, natural rice. heat treatment and light is destroyed in foods.

Vitamin H (Biotin)

It is important for the synthesis of amino acids, fats, metabolism of glucose, synthesis of vitamin C. In dogs It is partly formed by the microflora of the intestines. It helps with muscle fatigue, chronic fatigue, eczema. It is always justified to add it to skin conditions and poor hair quality.

Its deficiency occurs after taking antibiotics, or for greater skrmovaní of raw eggs. The egg white contains the Avidín that binds this vitamin.

It occurs in the liver, fish, yeast, milk, vegetables. destroying the boiling.

Folic acid (folacin)

It is indispensable for the synthesis of nucleic acids and normal bone marrow function. Its deficiency causes anemia, abortions and foetal development disorders in pregnant Sučiek.

In food may be absent especially if the dog is fed boiled food or poorly stored feed. It is extremely sensitive to heat and is practically not found in cooked food. The source of folic acid are liver, kidney, yeast, green plants.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Vitamin B12 interferes with the metabolism of nucleic acids, amino acids, fats, sugars, haemoglobin. It is important for the function of red blood cells, nerves, and muscles. deficiency is manifested by anemia, weight loss, poor appetite, weakness, mokvavými inflammation of the skin. However, in dogs, its deficiency is rare, as it is formed by the gut microflora and is mobilizable from the liver in an emergency. The most common with a disease from its deficiency is encountered in dogs with chronic digestion disorders. More in the diet, young, active dogs and dogs need a long-term illness or recovery.

the food is present for example. In meat and factors, in yeasts, eggs, seaweed. For its absorption, the presence of calcium is important.

Choline and Inosit

are part of Lecithin and have a role in The use and transport of fats, their redistribution in the body, reduce cholesterol levels. Protect the liver, skin and hair.

They are found in factors, yeasts, eggs, cereal sprouts, leafy vegetables.

Paraaminobenzoová acid (PABA)

It is important for metabolism of proteins and folic acid and Pantotenovej. Mild pain e.g. For Burns. It is located in factors, yeasts, in kind cereals.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Vitamí C is a powerful antioxidant, protecting the cells from free radicals. It also protects other vitamins from damage, is important for the use of iron, copper, calcium. A great role plays in the construction of connective tissues – bones, cartilages, Väzívs, teeth. It is important for Krvotvorbu, the immune system, the strength of blood vessels, tissue breathing. It helps to fight the body against infections, inflammation, tumors.

Dogs are able to synthesize vitamin C themselves, with the exception of Cicajúcich puppies, which are dependent on its supply in kolostre. If they do not, there is anemia, growth disorder and bone and cartilage distortion, reduced resistance, bleeding and tooth loss.

Higher need for vitamin C have dogs in growth, sick dogs, dogs exposed to stress and increased exertion.

Vitamin C is found in fresh meat, green plants, fruit, vegetables. Long-term food storage its quantity decreases. it destroys the boiling and breaks down in the presence of oxygen. Freezing does not harm it.


The use of mineral substances from feedingstuffs is also influenced by their relative ratios and the nutrient and vitamin content of the ration, on the basis of which it sometimes arises in excess surplus or deficiency. The organism has compensatory mechanisms which can be compensated to some extent by the undesirable condition. If the capacity of the compensatory mechanisms is exhausted, malfunctions arise. To minimize the risk it is safer to add mineral substances in the form of finished mineral or vitamin-mineral mixtures in which their ratio is optimal. The best problem is preceded by a balanced, varied diet, or by selecting the appropriate complete feed.

Calcium and phosphorus

They are an important building component of bones and teeth, and the body is stored in bones of up to 95% calcium and 85% of phosphorus from which the organism can be mobilised as needed.

calcium is essential for the functioning of the nervous system , the work of the heart, muscles, hormones, enzymes, is part of the cell walls, has a role in blood clotting, causing anti-inflammatory.

phosphorus is part of the nucleic acids, enzymes, involved in the processes of energy recovery.

The ideal ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the feed dose is 1:1 to 1.7:1. In the long-term uncorrect ratio of the elements in the feed, serious deficiency or excess, which exceeds the compensatory capacity of the organism, serious health problems arise – such as rickets, osteomalacia (softening and bone deformation), bone brittle, tooth loss, renal impairment, thyroid gland activities, infertility. The most sensitive are young animals in growth and pregnant and breastfeeding, for whom a large loss of calcium causes eclampsia – a disease accompanied by restlessness, Kŕčami, until death.

A good source of calcium are soft bones, egg shells, meat rather muscle, green plants, dairy products, nuts, a source of phosphorus turn offal, yeast, fish meal, eggs, nuts. Calcium absorption also affects the presence of vitamin D and fat in food, with too little, but also too much fat to use calcium decreases.


Magnesium belongs to the building blocks of bones and teeth, is part of the enzymes that are involved in gaining energy from nutrients, is indispensable for the normal functioning of the nervous system, muscles, heart. There is a lack of more sensitive young dogs who need it for growth.

if the body is absent, it can be felt by nervousness, loss of coordination of movements, weakness, Kŕčami. As the food is normally present, it is located for example. In meat, factors, eggs, nuts, green plants, fruit, its deficiency usually arises after overdose of calcium and phosphorus, or in chronically ill animals, possibly after longer lasting effort.


It helps to maintain a balance in the distribution of liquids and electrolytes in the body, is part of the enzymes, important for maintaining normalheart activity and blood pressure.

There is sufficient quantity in the feed, but for example diarrhoea, vomiting can cause its acute deficiency, which is manifested by weakness, lethargy, cardiac disorders. It is supplemented with rehydration solutions.

Sodium and chlorine

Like potassium, they belong to electrolytes that maintain a stable environment of the body. They are stored in the skeleton. It is mainly lost for loss of body fluids – diarrhoea, vomiting, bleeding, urinary excretion disorders, exhaustive activity. They are contained in rehydration electrolyte solutions.

Chlorine is a part of hydrochloric acid, important for digestion. Its lack causes indigestion, excess diarrhea and kidney damage.

sodium may be absent from lactatings, resulting in reduced milk formation, depletion, weight loss, deterioration in hair quality, cardiac disorders. overdose occurs especially after skrmovaníing large quantities of sausages or dry feedingstuffs, while water shortages are present. In this case, animals have accelerated breathing, zvracajú, have diarrhea, and later cramps.

Sodium is in greater quantity present in fish meal, yeast, muscle.


It is part of blood and muscle dyes, it is important for oxygen transport, is part of the enzymes. deficiency is seen by anemia, fatigue, poor hair quality and colour. Iron is for example. In factors, bones, red meat, green plants, in dried milk.


It is an antioxidant, part of many enzymes and insulin, is important forbones, skin and hair, wound healing and fertility. The lack of loss in the first row of hair, starvation include brittle claws and skin changes.

It is enough to be in the liver, dark meat, eggs, nuts.


It has a number of functions in the body, affects the absorption of iron, has the meaning for Krvotvorbu, the formation of melatonin, the replacement of hair, the growth of bones and cartilages, need her nerve tissue, heart. The lack of expression is for example. Lagging behind in growth, depigmentation. The overdose is poisonous.

They contain meat, offal, bones, and yeast.


It is an important part of the enzymes, it affects the metabolism of nutrients. It also affects theMunitný system, skeleton, fertility, nervous system. More manganese is in fish and cereal scraps.


It is part of vitamin B12. deficiency causes depression of growth, anemia and hair damage. It is mainly located in fish.


Selenium belongs to antioxidants, has a close relationship to vitamin E. Affectsgrowth and defensiveness. Its lack causes muscular dystrophy of young animals, weakness, infertility, oedema. Dogs receive it for example. In meat and roast, fish meal, eggs.


It is part of thyroid hormones and has an important role in the transformation of substances is required for normal growth, development and use of nutrients. lack of fatigue, lossing of the hair, reproduction disorders, lagging behind growth. There is a serious lack of thyroid disease.

Most of it is in sea fish and seaweed, it is added to the kitchen salt.