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Something about nutrition and feeding-III.

The peculiarities of the digestive tract in the dog

The dog is among the carnivores, which means that the length of its digestive tube is shorter than that of herbivores and Všežravcov, it is uspôsobená to digest food with a high protein content and low in fiber.

For this type of nutrition the dog is tailored also different. His teeth with small incisors, strong špiciakmi and a series of gradually increasinged chairs with conical hrbolčekmi, is a type called. Sekodontného (lat. secare – Chop) and is tailored to tearing large pieces of food that the dog swallows. Because of this, the dog also excludes a relatively large number of saliva, which, however, compares to the animals žuvajúcimi food, poorer to enzymes.


The dog is quite large and is able to take a larger amount of food at once. Gastric Juice contains up to 0.5% HCl, which also explains the greater resistance of the dog to bacterial infections from food. The stomach itself is protected by a large amount of mucus before the acid. If the stomach of the dog gets something difficult to digest, the dog is preventing zvracaním. Carnivores Zvracajú relatively easily compared to bylinožravcami and rare vomiting may not be a manifestation of the disease. However, if the dog vomits Úporne, several times a day, it is a serious symptom. If the dog often manages the grass and subsequently vomits, it probably is inappropriately fed, trying to get rid of the acidity in the stomach.

After indigestion in the stomach, the food moves into the small intestine, where the mouth ducts the bile ducts and the pancreas and there is an enzyme digestion and absorption of nutrients through the intestinal wall into the blood. An important body for the processing and distribution of nutrients is the liver, which also ensures the degradation of waste and toxic substances through the kidneys by means of urine and excretion in the bile through the intestines.

The Colon is populated with symbiotickými bacteria that help to break down the heavily digestible parts of the feed. Water and faeces are absorbed with thicken. Unlike the herbivores dog, the feed tanks are not populated with bacteria in the form of blind intestines, so it is not able to degrade ťažkostráviteľnú plant food.

The digestion of the dog is adapted to digest the feed with a concentrated content of easily digestible nutrients.

It is dependent on receiving a high amount of quality protein as it lacks bacterial inhabitation of intestines capable of missing proteins to „produce“. On its microflora is less dependent than herbivores, yetsymbiotic bacteria supplement it with some substances, e.g. Vitamins help to maintain a healthy environment in the intestines, preventing the accumulation of undigestible residues in them and the settlement of germs germs. If this microflora is impaired e.g. An inadequate nutrient-changing environment in the intestines, or long-term use of antibiotics, indigestion occurs.

The peculiarity of the anus in the dog are the anus stored on its sides. They contain secretions by which the dog „signs“ their feces, excludes a characteristic odor. For inadequate nutrition, e.g. If the stool is long-term soft, nevyprázdňujú properly, they can clog, ignite and cause a painful disease. It can also irritate the excess of spices, salt, but also bone in the diet. They should be noted especially if their dog is often vylizuje, or „sánkuje“ on the butt.

Feeding methods

The views on the way of feeding are constantly changing. Today, breeders use several feeding methods, and cannot be clearly said to be the best. Each has its own merits and shortcomings.

Feed the finished feed

This feeding method, which is the least natural and attractive for dogs, is currently most widely used for practical reasons. Using finished feed saves the dog owners time, is the most hygienic, variable. If the breeder decides to feed the finished fodder, it is important that the feed is collected according to quality, not by price, because there are differences between the types of feed. Quality finished feedingstuffs have balanced nutrient content, vitamins and minerals for different categories of dogs, even for dogs with different specific demands and diagnoses. On the other hand , nothing worse in your dog can be done as long as it is fed with poor quality or inappropriate feed.

Ready-made feedingstuffs are complete, or supplemental, dry or moist.

Complete Feed

They contain all the ingredients of nutrition required for a particular category of dogs and can be used as a single feed. If we find the feed that suits our dog, we can feed it for a long time, which has the advantage of avoiding the stress of the digestive system and digestive problems, as well as the fluctuation in animal condition. If the feed mix, or alternating, it is not an error, for a dog can be such a feeding more interesting, in addition to more varied diet we avoid problems from the deficiency or overdose of certain substances.

when navigating to another feed, it is better to maintain a sequencewhere the original feed is added to the part of the new one, and we gradually increase its share within 3 – 7 days.

Supplementary feedingstuffs

Contain only one part of the ration, e.g. Only protein feedingstuffs, or, more frequently, feedingstuffs of plant origin and are intended to be mixed with other complementary feedingstuffs or to cooked or raw foods.

Dry Feed

According to the method of preparation can be extruded, baked, cold pressed, dried.

Dry Extruded Feedingstuffs are the most commonly available feed on the market. They are prepared from the finely ground components mixed into the trap, which are pretláčajúed through the nut and form into granules. During this process are exposed several times to high pressure and temperature. In these conditions, it increases the usability of certain plant components, slightly reduces the digestibility of animal feed proteins, destroys biogénne substances, enzymes, certain amino acids, vitamins, minerals, which are subsequently replaced Synthetic. These are added to the feed in the right circumstances, but their effectiveness is often not the same as when they are in natural ties. The finished granules are coated with fats that increase their tastes. The advantage is that they do not contain any parasites and pathogenic bacteria.

Dry baked feedingstuffs are prepared by gentle baking in the oven at a lower temperature and pressure than extruded feedingstuffs, so that the nutritional value of the raw materials is less impaired.

dry cold-pressed feedingstuffs are quite new. In this technology, raw materials mixed into the trap are pressed without the use of high temperatures and the feed retains the original nutritional value. They Primiešava less chemical substances and may have a shorter shelf life than extruded feedingstuffs. Their production is more demanding and is still

dried fodder is exhibited by a stream of heated air which removes the water from the food. This method of treatment is more friendly than other types of heat treatment.

Moist feedingstuffs

are mostly sold in canned or trays. They often contain less preservatives as they are preserved by heat treatment. However, there may also be lower levels of vitamins. Dogs usually like to accept them and can be used as a single feed, but also mixed with complementary or complete dry fodder. Feeding them usually comes out more expensive. However, if small amounts are mixed into granules, for dogs This increases the attractiveness of the ration, plus it is easy to do, if necessary, to stir the medications and nutritional supplements. In their quality there are also great differences.

How to choose a finished feed

The quality of ready-made feed for dogs is a big difference and the benefits associated with this type of feed can only be said if we choose from the better. However, it is not easy for breeders to navigate through the flood of ads, Internet discussions and guaranteed expert advice on everything.

The feed market for dogs is mainly flooded with low nutritional value, which are made from the cheapest raw materials, waste and feed that dogs zasýtia, even often taste them, as they are modified to spray the granules with tempting But the doggy of them only has a few nutrients needed. In the production of inexpensive, subprimed feed is conserved on raw materials, which will take place gradually on the condition of the dog – first on the condition of its skin and fur, overall condition (vychudnutosť, or obesity), later on medical condition.

Long term inappropriate whether a deficit feeding can nenávratrne damage the dog’s health.

When choosing a feed we can therefore rely on either the brand – Top feed manufacturers are just a few, or carefully study the composition of thefeed. However, the reliable indicator remains the dog – if it is in optimal shape, healthy, has a rich shiny coat, good pigmentation, its feces are small and firm, has a taste to life, a lot of energy and good spirits, the feed will be good. One of the indicators of cheap non-quality fodder is the quantity, size and consistencyof faeces, as most of such feed is eliminated very quickly from the body as non-digestible waste.

If we choose to feed by brand, it is also necessary to know that some producers of začkových feed produce them in several rows, with the lowest row containing not quality feedingstuffs. These are known simply – in addition to the low price it is typical for them that they have a different name than the other feed of the manufacturer and the brand is not highlighted on them, but only subtly listed somewhere on the edge of the text. The brand does not praise them, but in the prevailing tendency of breeders to feed dogs with cheap „waste“ they try to keep in competition.

On the contrary, the highest quality feedingstuffs sold by producers in the „veterinary ranks“ are feedingstuffs which are distributed only through veterinary surgeons and include, in addition to superprémiových feedingstuffs, veterinary diets, which are indicated for specific problems. However, very good quality also tend to be their middle line, which sell specialized trades, not hypermarkets. The producers of these feedingstuffs differ from those of others in the fact that they invest in research, clinical trials, verifications, and the price of the products.

However, small producers ‚ feed may also be of good quality. In their assessment, people often make a mistake in the fact that they take more notice of the advertising slogans, what their manufacturer is trying to lure and attractively active additives that have only secondary importance. However, the actual composition of the feed is crucial, while the nutrient content of the nutrients does not say much to us, the latter is similar to most of the feed.

There are certain standards in which the feed must be squeeze. However, the protein and fat content does not say much about their quality and the energy content does not talk about what energy comes from.

According to the regulations in force, the manufacturer must indicate the composition of the feedingstuff on the packaging , the constituents of which are drawn up in descending order of their representation. Therefore, the first 3 – 4 items should form the most important information about the composition of the feed. Not always this is because manufacturers are trying to picture the feed a little better for example. By typing one item into 3 – 4 to move them in the list below (e.g. wheat flour, wheat bran, wheat germ, or corn flour, corn gluten, etc.). For feedingstuffs for which they wish to figurovali at the top of the list, they shall assist, for example, by placing fresh meat in dry feedingstuffs without giving its dry matter. So if we have fresh meat in the first place, we have to deduct from it about 70% of the water, so the resulting value is about one third of the quantity indicated. In some feedingstuffs, the composition is very vaguely reported, e.g. in the list of Cereals, or meat and derivatives of animal origin, it is likely that the composition of such feed varies according to the ingredients of the manufacturer ‚.

reliable fodder should have a clear and transparent composition in the list, while weighing quality feedingstuffs of animal origin – meat and meat (not mäsokostné) meal. It should not have a high, no more predominant carbohydrate content, and should not highly outweigh the fats of plant origin. Recent trends in feeding are trying to limit cereal content, some feed is completely excreted.

Change of Feed

If we decide to change the dog’s feed, we should not do it suddenly. One of the disadvantages of food-ready feeding is the long-term feeding of one type of food, which adjusts the digestion of the individual (excretion of digestive juices, enzymes, microflora of the intestines, etc.). A sudden transition to other feed therefore often causes a problem in the form of digestion disorders. Therefore, we should always make the transition to another feed within a few days, when we start primiešavaťing new feed into the original ration, and we increase its share gradually.

Feed storage

To maintain the quality of the feed is a substantial way of storing it. Dry fodder should be stored in a dry, dark place. In particular, fats and vitamins are light debase. The dampthat the feed sucks from the air promotes not only the decomposition of nutrients and vitamins, but also promotes the growth of mold and bacteria. It is ideal to store in closed containers. If we do not have such an option, it is better to buy a smaller pack of fodder and do not store it long.

Canned moist feedingstuffs must be stored in a refrigerator after opening.

Feeding boiled food

The advantage of this feeding is that it can be quite varied, safe from a health point of view, and for the dog it’s the most delicious way to feed. The owner himself determines his composition and can adapt it to the needs of a doggy. The heat treatment destroys parasites, viruses and most bacteria in food, on the other hand, and enzymes, many vitamins and other biologically active substances. The digestibility of protein decreases. For cooked fodder it is usually necessary to add vitamin – mineral supplements.

The disadvantage of feeding boiled food can be a number of errors in its composition, e.g. If the residues of human food are predominantly high in salts, spices, sugars, if an unsuitable source of protein is used, the long-term feeding is only of poor-quality slaughterhouse waste If the food contains too much carbohydrate-like feedingstuffs, such as Pasta, rice, bread, if it contains too much bone, or an unbalanced ratio of vitamins and minerals, which is dangerous especially in young dogs and sučiek in reproduction. Improper feed composition in this type of feeding is the most common cause of obesity in dogs with all the risks associated with it.

The basis of such ration should be the meat (Which, if it is harmless, cook only necessarily a short time), can be supplemented by offal, cartilage, with a small addition of carbohydrate feedingstuffs (e.g. oatmeal, pasta, rice). Small carbohydrate content helps to improve the digestion of proteins, but in no case should they be an essential component of the feed. Eggs and dairy products (not too salty) can be added. A suitable supplement is vegetables, the fibre content in it helps to better digestion. This can be administered cooked or even raw, but it is prefered to be finely chopped or rozmixovanáed.

Feeding Raw Food

In recent years we register a return to the najprirodzenejšiemu feeding of dogs with raw food. This is likely to result from the results of some research, but also from an increased interest in healthy lifestyles, Naturalizáciu life, but also higher seizures of „lifestyle“ diseases in dogs.

The basis of this feeding is the quality of raw meat and meat bones, some offal, vegetables and fruit, sometimes a carbohydrate component is added – e.g. Oat flakes, egg yolk and dairy products. The advantage is high digestibility and nutritional value of food. Disadvantage – The health risks associated with bacterial and parasitic contamination of the meat. This type of feeding requires the selection of quality raw materials and the high hygiene of their storage and preparation. In particular, in dogs kept in flats, the food must be adjusted to neroznášali off the dishes.

Abroad, but even with us in larger cities it is already possible to buy raw fodder finished either as complete, or complementary, frozen, or chilled, which greatly facilitates its preparation. As the basis of the feed dose, poultry meat or beefare most commonly used. Pork poses a risk due to a possible infection with a fatal Aujeszky’s disease virus. Meat of grazing animals (sheep, goats, game) may be more likely to be contaminated by parasites, it is appropriate to treat it by thawing for at least 48 hours.

Frost destroys most parasites, but not bacteria and viruses. Poultry is often contaminated with Salmonellami, which are sometimes underestimated. Some salmonella strains are highly pathogenic and the infection can end with mortality, especially in puppies. Similarly, some types of Clostrídií, Listérií, or Escherichia coli, which we encounter with long-term and difficult-to-solve infestations in dog breeds, may be dangerous.

For meat intended for human consumption, the risk of infections is significantly smaller than for meat from unknown sources or waste, especially if stored poorly. It should be taken into account that, for example, Salmonella is propagated at room temperature after 20 minutes and presents a health risk for humans. Caution should also be taken when storing offal that is spoiled faster.

Particular attention should also be paid to the bonesthat are part of the feeding. It should not be too much, they should not be sharp, brittle, but even so large as to swallowed to be stuck in the throat. Puppies often cause severe inflammation of the intestines and ground bones from poultry, which are part of some finished feedingstuffs. Ideally, bones are well-coated meat, bones of young animals with cartilage.

Feed suitable for dogs

Meat (muscle) is a most natural and well digestible food for dogs. Meat of healthy animals (poultry, beef, rabbit, nutriové, lamb, etc.) is the best fed raw, pork only cooked, meat of game and from Pasienkovo farmed animals prefer cooked, or at least 48 hours frozen.

The viscera are also high nutritional feed, but because of their composition, skrmujeme them more carefully. Quality feed is for example. Heart with a favorable protein content, though higher fat content. The liver and kidneys have high content of digestible proteins, vitamins, quality fats, glycogen, but also higher content of various waste substances, sometimes residues of drugs, heavy metals etc. Good feed is also larynx, tongue, tripe, udders. The lungs have a high proportion of heavily digestible ingredients. The spleen has a high nutritional value, but in greater quantities causes diarrhea.

cartilages are interesting for their high mineral content, they are more difficult to digest, but increase the tastes of the ration.

Bones in the natural feed dose compensate for the adverse ratio of calcium and phosphorus, which is in meat and factors. The most suitable are the veal bones, which are a good toy in the period of replacement teeth. The pork bones are safer for at least a while to insert into boiling water. Good are meat-coated bones – poultry carcases, necks, wings, tails, ribs, long bones of large animals. Poultry and rabbit long rúrovitým bones, which are fragile, crisp and brittle, are better avoided, especially cooked. Bones should be supplemented by a feed dose of up to 30% in order not to cause constipation.

Fish – more suitable is to serve them a little boiled, especially if their skrmujeme often. Some fish species reduce the use of iron or thiamin from the feed, some contain parasites transmissible to dogs. However, they are valuable high protein feed, essential fatty acids, vitamin D, E, iodine. Canned fish are also excellent food.

eggs have high digestibility and contain a wealth of valuable proteins, fats, vitamins. Źĺtka eggs from controlled holdings we can also give the dog raw, white only if neskrmujeme more than one egg per week. Raw egg white contains substances znehodnocujúce vitamin H. Minced egg shells, which are an important source of calcium, may also be used as a feed supplement.

milk is not dogs equally digested. Some dogs lack enzymes to digest milk sugar – lactose, so the cow’s milk causes diarrhea. By contrast, goat’s milk, which contains a number of valuable biogenic substances, usually does not cause digestive problems. . If the dog bears milk, it can be a separate feed or better in the form of cereal mashed. Whole milk has high levels of protein, calcium, vitamins. More suitable than milk alone are sour products that have a high nutritional value without the negative qualities of fresh milk – yoghurt, curd, bryndza, cheese, sour milk (the dog must gradually get used to it). The cheeses we choose with a lower salt content, rather aromatic, are also an ideal reward for training. If we add regularly to the feed curd, which eg. Improves the quality of the hair, it is necessary to supplement the dog with calcium due to its adverse ratio in it. Milk powder, but better goat, is ideal for balanceing a feed dose that does not contain enough valuable protein and calcium. Moreover, it is a delicacy for dogs.

yeasts are a concentrated source of amino acids and vitamins. In small quantities they promote appetite and use of nutrients from the feed.

fats and oils are added primarily to the feed of active dogs during training and race, but also to dogs in cold weather, living in clamps or those with skin problems. As a complement to the power of the dog in the load is added e.g. Pork ointment, poultry fat, greaves, ghee, but also vegetable oils and fish oil. Dogs with skin disease help plant and fish oils, but others need to be followed by the dosages indicated by the manufacturer. Higher fat content in the feed increases the demands of vitamin E. Too much fat causes diarrhea, or until the irritation of the pancreas. By pulling the dog, a lot of fat is added to the feed, but it requires niekoľkotýždňovú preparation for such a feeding method.

wholegrain Cereals Feed is only given to dogs in small quantities. Carbohydrates help them to better digest proteins, they are a quick source of energy, but excess carbohydrates are high in the internal organs and are stored as fat. For carnivores, these feed are the least natural food and are not necessary for them. Dogs can be cookeded with rice, pasta, groats, buckwheat, oatmeal and raw or hot water or broth. Corn is less digestible, protein wheat often causes allergies.

potatoes can be administered cooked, in any case not with sprouts. Their nutritional value is low.

vegetables and fruits Well complement the feed dose, contain a number of vitamins, minerals, healthy fibre. The fruit has a higher sugar content. More suitable for the dog is a little boiled, but can also be added raw, chopped, or rozmixované. Dogs also like fermented cabbage. The pieces of vegetables are a good reward for obese dogs. Each dog prefers other fruits and vegetables, but this is especially a habit. The feed is added in small quantities, too much fiber aggravates the digestibility of the whole ration. Some types of vegetables can also cause health problems at high doses, e.g. Cabbage (flatulence), carrots (overdose of beta-carotene, yellowing of the skin).

nuts and seeds are a source of protein, quality fats, vitamins and minerals. They can be supplemented by a feed dose, but only in small quantities. Seeds with hard peel are usually undigested if they are not swollened in water or sprouted. E.g. Flax seeds, supporting the health of the skin, hair, and digestive apparatus, it is advisable to crush, blend, or sprout.

herbs become increasingly common to become part of food for dogs. However, if the breeder wishes to use them, they should add them in small quantities and know their effects. In no case should it be too mixed, but neither fed one species long term.

seaweed contains iodine and other minerals, amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants, in small quantities can improve pigmentation and protect teeth from dental stones (e.g. Kelpa). They can, however, also contain a lot of heavy metals, so they need to be added carefully and purchased only from an authenticated source.

Feedingstuffs unfit for dogs

cocoa, chocolate contain methylxanthines theobromin and Kofein. First of all, the dog cannot be effectively metabolised, so these foods are toxic. In higher doses can cause serious health problems until death. If the dog gets to a greater amount of chocolate, after a few hours he usually increases blood pressure, sometimes returns, disappearance, hyperactivity, accelerated breathing, later cramps and mortality due to the failure of the bloodstream. Sometimes, a paradoxically disappearing pressure reduction, weakness, dizziness. Dark chocolate and cocoa powder are more toxic than milky, but this is often irritated by the pancreas.

Caffeine in coffee or tea, cola drinks in large quantities induces hyperactivity, heart rhythm disorders, shortness of breath

too much fat without prior preparation can cause acute inflammation of the pancreas. Major health problems can cause spoiled, oxidized fats that are toxic to the body. The fats must be well stored and protected by antioxidants.

sweets, sugar, too many flour products cause obesity, damage your teeth, after time cause diabetes.

artificial sweeteners, especially xylitol, may cause severe blood sugar fluctuations and damage the liver. Artificial sweeteners are part of many „diet“ sweet products – cakes, biscuits, candies, DOGCHEWSS, yoghurts, etc. In a dog the consumption of these foods can lead to liver failure.

salt food and cold cuts – they have a lot of harmful effects, dangerous are primarily for the kidneys of the dog. Sausage Packaging is undigested and obstructed by the digestive tract.

legumes, sour dough, in larger quantities even cabbage, sprouts, cauliflowerscause flatulence, painful cramps in the intestines, in the extreme case to the breakage of the intestinal wall.

onions and garlic contain sulphides which are capable of damaging enzymes protecting cell walls of red blood cells. If the dog has regularly these ingredients in their food, or if a disposable dose is received, there may be a discontinuation of red blood cells with subsequent anaemia, leading in severe cases to death. Onions and garlic are dangerous for the dog, even cooked. In small quantities, it does not endanger it, but it is safer to avoid them.

Avocado contains a toxin persin. The dog can cause respiratory irritation, cough, lung oedema, heart failure and mortality.

chilli can cause inflammation of the digestive tract with zvracaním, diarrhoea, heart rhythm disorders, sometimes up to shock.

grapes and raisins sometimes cause kidney failure, the cause of which has not been clarified. It is possible that these problems are related to the treatment of grapes by chemicals, but, given the occurrence of such cases, they advise on foods that are not safe for dogs.

The stones of the fruit – especially apricots, plums, peaches, can clog the digestive tract. The seeds inside contain toxic cyanide.

Peel ofWalnut, if the dog himself collects nuts in the garden, are dangerous as a mechanical obstacle in the digestive tract, but some fungus on them may be the cause of poisoning.

sprouted potatoes, immature tomatoes, some mushrooms contain deadly toxins.

Nutmeg is not an appropriate spice for preparing food for dogs, a larger amount can cause trišku, cramps, death.

Macadamia Nuty – may cause cramps, until paralysis.

bones of poultry and rabbitV, but other bones, if they are too much, cause constipation, ending frequently on the operating table, or inflammation of the digestive tract, sometimes zapichnú the dog in the oral cavity and cause festering abscesses, or get stuck in the pharynx or esophagus. For puppies, there are both dangerous and coarsely ground bones present in some finished products.

Raw egg white contains Avidín binding vitamin H.

Raw Fish – some contain enzymes that destroy thiamin or bind iron. Serious health problems may arise in the long term skrmovaní.

Raw Pork – due to the risk of a noncurable Aujeszky’s disease.

moldy fodder is always very dangerous. Fungi make up very strong toxins, damaging the liver and other internal organs, are carcinogenic.

alcohol causes dogs like problems as people, but already in much smaller quantities. It can cause unpredictable behavior, restlessness, shaking, cramping, unconsciousness, death, or liver damage.