Something about nutrition and feeding-IV.
What amount of feed a dog needs
If the dog is fed finished feed, the manufacturer on the packaging shall indicate the recommended quantity of feed by weight and activity of the dog. Generally higher quality feedingstuffs tend to more concentrated, the dog needs to take a lower dose, less quality are more subtle.
An indicative adult dog needs about 25 – 30 g of dry matter per kg of weight and the day, while puppies in the most intense growth period of 40 – 50 g and laktujúcae the female, 50 – 80 g. Additional grams need to be added to an active dog or dog outdoors in cold weather. However, this depends mainly on the quality of the „dry matter“. Better than calculations, it is to follow whether the dog is satisfied and vibrant and according to its condition. A dog in good shape should have tangible ribs, but not too protruding, to be wee bit coated, behind the ribs should have a narrowing in the lumbar part. If the narrowing is not visible, if there are no tactile individual ribs, the dog is overweight. If, on the contrary, the ribs are clearly tactile immediately under the skin, the doggy is too skinny. The dog is considered to be obese if its weight exceeds 15 – 20% of the ideal weight.
If we feed fresh food, dog by age, activity and fitness, it needs a daily feed about 2 – 5% of its weight. However, as with the finished feed, the main criterion is the appearance, fitness and state of health of the dog. Digestion is a tad different for each individual, so the feeding needs to be customized individually.
In the case of finished feedingstuffs, the recommended quantity of fodder per dayis indicated on the packaging, so we usually begin to feed such lots and then adjust the dose individually according to the individual’s needs. If the dog has overweight or underweight, serve him with such a quantity of feed that would match its ideal weight. If the dog is fed several times a day, we will divide the daily dose into a proportional part.
Feeding pregnant and laktujúcejing the female
in the first six weeks of pregnancy , the fruits are still small and the female does not have special feeding requirements. Her body more rationally uses nutrient from the food it receives, so there is no need to increase the energy value of the feed. However, feed should be of good quality in order not to cause digestive problems and not to be deficient, which could be negatively seen later.
during the last weeks before childbirth (6 – 9th Week) on the female we see that it begins to round. At this time the fruits begin to grow sharply, the uterus swells and pushes the diaphragm and the stomach of the baby. In this period, mothers ‚ claims for energy, nutrients and minerals are growing. If there is a shortage in food, it breaks down the substance from the tissues of the body. At the same time, however, it is not advisable too much to increase the volume of food because the stomach is unable to accept it. If we feed ready-made fodder, it is advisable to switch to feed fodder for pregnant and lactatinged or high-quality fodder for puppies to ensure the necessary increase in nutrient intake without undue increases in feed volume. The intake of energy in the female should be increased by approximately 50% of its normal daily needs, while feeding is appropriate to split into several smaller doses a day.
If the kŕmená in this period is crude or boiled food, its feed dose should contain enough quality protein, energy and a balanced ratio of calcium and phosphorus. In the home of prepared food it is usually necessary to add calcium, which is less, and after initiation of lactation, postpartum eklampsii may occur (in particular, after feeding with slaughterhouse waste, offal, large amounts of cereals, less quality Finished fodder). Calcium is added according to the type of food and according to the recommendations of the manufacturer of the preparation used. The excess calcium in the diet leads to a worsening of the mobilization of its own calcium into the blood, which also threatens the female.
It is not recommended to exceed the above mentioned energy intake, especiallynot in the form of carbohydrates, in order to avoid excessively rapid growth of fruits and subsequent complications in childbirth.
during childbirth and shortly before him usually the female is not interested in the feed. If childbirth is lengthy and exhaustive, we can offer it a little water with glucose.
after giving birth to her initially serve an easily digestible and tasty feed in smaller doses – e.g. Broth, dairy products, minced meat, etc., can get a little glucose, or rehydrate drinks with glucose and gradually pass on to normal feeding. In the first weeks of lactation, energy claims and nutrients in the female are still rising depending on the number of puppies. In the average litter the female needs to take 100% more energy in the first week, as usual, in the second by 200, In 3. and 4. Up to 300%, then the feeding demands gradually decrease with decreasing lactation. To keep the female in good shape and to ensure the necessary nutrients for milk production, we divide the feeding into several smaller doses. We use Superprémiové feedingstuffs for puppies, or for lactatinged pups. If we feed the food at home, the basis for quality muscle, dairy products, eggs, oatmeal is to be added to calcium as needed. This must be increased with the first signs of restlessness and nervousness if symptoms worsen, veterinary care is needed.
If the female does not provide adequate food intake, it usually forms milk at the expense of its own reserves and later tissues (muscles, bones).
Feeding the puppies to a deposition
in the early weeks the age of puppies receive all the necessary nutrition in Colostrum, later in the mother’s milk. At first, it’s good to check your puppies ‚ weight by weighing in order to solve any problems in time. Healthy puppies double their weight in 8 – 10 days.
The female usually has enough milk for his entire litter because its production directly depends on the quantity that is excreted in the cicaní of the puppies. Only if the litters are extremely large, or when the disease of the pups, or puppies, the milk may be deficient. Weak, sick puppies nesajú enough milk and this ceases to form. In this case the puppies need to be dokrmovať. At present, there is ample high quality substitutes for canine milk. Cow’s milk itself as a substitute is not appropriate, it contains only half of the protein and fat compared to the milk of the female, in addition to having a high content of heavily digestible milk sugar.
With prikrmovaním puppies Getting Started In 3. To 4 weeks of age. The first day we offer them only about a teaspoon of food on taste, the next day 2 times, then 3 times and gradually go to feed the ad libitum 4 – 5 times a day. The first meal of puppies should be meat naškrabané, or rozmixované – raw or cooked. In the first week, we usually serve only food of animal origin, we offer the herbal ingredients initially in small quantities to make their digestive tract fit for less natural and heavier digestible food. The puppies are gradually privykajú to feed and take less milk to the detriment of solid food. The principle should be to offer them every new food initially only in small quantities and gradually extend them to the diet. .
If we feed the puppies before the meal is done, it should be a feed marked as a starter. Most of the feed for puppies is determined by puppies after the deposition. In the first week to two, serve the granules with water, 5. 6. The week are able to learn to receive dry food.
Ideally, if the puppies remain at the mother and have the possibility to replenish the food with breast milk for up to 8 weeks of age. This is also appropriate for their psychological and social development. Well they definitely do not have to be set off before 6 weeks.
Feeding the puppies after the deposition
The deposition is a great stress for the puppy, especially if it is moved to a new home. Change the feed portion of this stress zosiľňuje. Therefore, no matter how the puppy was fed at the original owner, the first few days it is preferable to change it and prepare it gradually. If it was fed by finished fodder, it is good to bring him from the original home and the new feed will begin to primiešavať it gradually. Chew to each new feed gradually.
When feeding puppies, only the best quality feed can be recommended, because the mistakes that are made in this age canbe done by the dog with you, often cannot be remedied. If we feed the food at home, the basis of the ration should form very high quality raw materials of animal origin (at least two thirds, rather than three quarters), a complete vitamin-mineral premixes for puppies are added to the cooked food.
It should be noted that dogs in the most intense stage of growth at the age of 3 – 6 monthsneed double the amount of nutrients and energy compared to an adult dog of the same size, then until the end of growth about one and polnásobné. Since such a quantity of food cannot be accepted and processed at once, the puppies are fed to the age of 3 months 5 times a day, 4 months to 4 times a day, up to 6 months 3 times a day, then within 1 to 1 and a half years 2 times. If your dog begins to take over the food, we will reduce the number of feeding sooner.
At the age of 3 – 7 months in puppies there is a replacement of teeth. If we notice that the puppies fed with dry food during this period are less eaten, it is better to shed food with water or broth to facilitate feed intake. But in addition, they can provide large veal or cooked pork bones to play, which benefits the gums.
For adult dogs, we will also move gradually after the end of growth between 1 year and 1 and a half years. The change in feeding is definitely required if we notice that the doggy begins to get.
Feeding Adult Dogs
An adult dog is enough to feed once a day, always at about the same time. However, according to some studies and the experience of breeders, it is better to certify the feeding 2 – 3 times a day, while feeding 3 times, the odedňajšia dose is rather symbolic – fleshy bone, vegetables, a little meat with vegetables, or some granules. If the dog is fed several times a day, the quantity that is sufficient as the daily ration is divided into several portions. If such feeding is observed, there is a risk of less risk of obesity or malnutrition, the dog is more satisfied, the quality of his life will increase, as it gives him more attention and is dopriatych more pleasant moments a day, the clamp is more calm, as the animals are too unhungry And they are not nervous. In addition, the owner of the feeding usually better checks and the doggy receives less fodder „outside“ the dish.
The use of feed is influenced by daily biorhythms, soregularityis important, but for example stress factors, it is necessary to ensure that the dog is eaten at rest, so as not to interrupted people, other dogs, etc.. Some dogs respond to stress very sensitive to digestion disorders.
The dog is not advisable to feed immediately after physical exertion, it is preferable to give him the food first half to an hour after a demanding walk or a workout. And, despite the fact that dogs often tend to be very active after feeding, it is preferable to leave them for at least 1 – 2 hours to relax, especially because of theprevention of stomach torsion.
The amount of feed we adapt to the shape and activity of the dog, but also to other circumstances, e.g. Dogs living in clamps where they are more active, or in cold weather, we slightly increase the calorific value of the feed dose. When changing the hair We emphasize the quality of protein and we can add an extra dose of unsaturated fatty acids in the form of e.g. Marine fish (e.g. also from kozervy), fish oil, liver (or extracts thereof), flax oil, olive or ground flax seed in small quantities, or finished preparations with. Their contents and content of biotin.
in dogs with a tendency to weight and in castrated dogs and Sučiek, it is necessary to reduce the intake of energy primarily by limiting carbohydrates in them. Ready-to-use feedingstuffs may be used for castrated dogs, or feedingstuffs with a lower energy content, marked usually as „light“. The advantage of these feeds is that the dog gets less energy in the same large dose as it used to be and which feed it. Of course, even these feed is of substantial quality.
The suitability of the feed dose is assessed in the longer term according to the appearance and fitness of the dog, performance, mood, but immediately provide us with a picture of the digestion of the feces. Feces are to be relatively small, solid, brown colors. If there is too much, it is indicative that the dog’s feed cannot be used well, there are probably many undigestible ingredients. If the feces are too dark, usually a softer, this is usually the Prekrmovaní offal. Sparsely reside over sparse food (milk, greasy broth), after prekrmovaní carbohydrates (scrap, bread, pasta, etc.) or fats. Bright, hard, or even fragile and crumbly denounce the prekrmovaní bones. Stinking faeces indicate already a serious problem with digestion and violation of the microflora of the intestines, permanent sparse stools, admixture of mucus, blood indicate inflammation of the intestines.
In dogs, there is no rare intolerance for certain ingredientsof the feed. If the dog is more likely to experience digestive problems, it is advisable to monitor and record what foods appear and exclude them from their diet. Many of the feeds that are added to dog food are relatively new to humans and for the canine organism are something cudzorodým, to digest what they do not have enzymatic „equipment“. Some individuals thus respond to such For milk, wheat, soya, but also other ingredients. This dog is usually sufficient to remove hard-to-digest elements from the feed.
the allergy to feed is already a more serious condition, often associated e.g. With itchy inflammation of the skin and ears, sometimes behavioural changes, etc. If a dog develops such a disease, the small admixture of the feed that is allergic to it causes long-lasting health problems. Additionally, a dog with such impaired immunity often creates additional allergies to other proteins. In the suspicion of such a condition that is not rare, this is the third most widely used type of allergy in dogs, it is necessary to confirm it so called. Test feeding. For this purpose, special diets are developed without the content of allergens (they are not feedingstuffs labelled as hypoallergenic, which get in normal stores, these are veterinary diets). After a 6-week feeding, this feed in an allergic dog dissolves all the symptoms of his illness and further feeding is then adjusted to its needs. A test diet can also be produced at home, if we know with what the doggie protein has never come into contact with. This can be for example. Rice and meat (e.g. lamb, nutriové, rabbit, duck, etc.) in the ratio of 3:1, for 6 weeks the dog must not eat anything else.
problems with digestion acute or chronic often relate to a whole range of diseases – infectious, parasitic, organ disease. The treatment includes specially prepared diets – prepared or prepared at home after consultation with a veterinarian. Nutrition is a very important, often essential, part of the treatment of diseases and sometimes is critical to a reversal in the disease, or for long term maintenance of the doggy in good condition. In particular, it is the best prevention of all diseases.
Feeding Adult Dogs
For the elderly, most dogs begin to be considered around 7th – 9. Year of Life. The metabolism of an older dog is slowing down, part of the muscle mass being replaced by fat tissue, organs and tissues starting to show signs of wear, are less powerful, are slower to regenerate. This also relates to certain changes in nutrition claims.
An older dog has often worn teeth, forms less saliva and digestive juices, peristalsising his bowels is slower. Therefore, the consistency of food should him be different, not for example. Appropriate to administer the meat in large pieces, the bones should be reduced and gradually eliminated in the ration, and the granules should be soaked or combined with vlhkejšou food. Because of the weak and the senses of a doggy, food should be attractive enough to receive it. However, it should contain less energy – especially low carbohydrates, but also fewer fats, although fats inevitably needs, but less and good quality. Older dog fails to spend excess energy and stores it in fat stocks.
Obesity can worsen the state of the organs, and some pathological changes and chronic ailments. However, certain small fat stocks need, for example, because it is worse to maintain its body temperature in cold weather.
The need for protein is not significantly decreasing because proteins in the muscles and organs are constantly interchangeable. When výraznejšom the limits of protein in the feed, the doggy begins to lose muscle mass. However, due to the ability to digest, proteins must be of high quality and administered in well-digestible feedingstuffs. Therefore, the basis of the feed dose for an older doggy should be quality meat, hearts, liver, kidneys and small amounts of vegetables, fruits, or appropriate herbs due to the content of fiber and biologically active substances. If we feed the finished feed, it should be a feed intended for seniors with a lower energy content, of course quality.
Some of these feed also contain suitable nutritional supplements to protect joints in the form of chondroitin, MSM, glucosamine and essential fatty acids, for example, in the form of fish oil.